Baking Bread on the Stove Top: Yeast Breads

Image of Yeast Bread baked in Dutch oven

UPDATE:  Since I originally wrote this article, I learned about the Omnia Stove Top Oven, which gives better results very easily.  Be sure to check it out!

Yeast breads are a little trickier to bake on the stove top than quick breads (that is, breads made with baking powder).

With yeast breads, we expect a dry, crunchy crust.  But when I “baked” bread in the Dutch oven using the same method as for quick breads, I got a crust that was more like that of a bagel — in other words, a chewy crust.

The bread was good, but it wasn’t quite the same as when I had baked it in a conventional oven — and that’s what I wanted.  After a lot of experimentation, I’ve been able to consistently obtain a drier crust — like that in the photo.

The basic problem is that in a Dutch oven, bread tends to “steam” rather than “bake.”  The moisture comes from the dough itself, but my question was why this was a bigger problem in a Dutch oven than in a conventional oven.

Picture of Dutch oven inside skillet with tuna canI finally figured it out, but I first need to explain that the typical arrangement for baking in a Dutch oven, as I described in how to bake quick breads on the stove top, is to put something — a tuna can, a trivet or, as a reader suggested yesterday, the saucer from a clay flower pot — on the bottom of the Dutch oven, and place the baking pan on top of that.  This keeps the bottom of the bread from burning.

I’ve come to the conclusion that “steaming” resulted from three differences between conventional baking and Dutch oven baking:

  • The smaller size of the Dutch oven;
  • Conventional ovens have a vent, which allows the steam to escape; and
  • A typical pan sitting on a tuna can in the Dutch oven has little space between the sides of the pan and the lid, which traps the moisture right over the baking loaf.

Another problem is that the top crust does not really brown, as it does in a conventional oven.

The solution was four-fold:

  • Bake the bread on a flat sheet instead of a pan with high sides, since this allows the humidity to dissipate through the entire volume of the Dutch oven;
  • Bake denser bread (less yeast, more flour) so the loaf wouldn’t overflow the flat sheet;
  • Bake darker breads (whole wheat and rye) that have color of their own; and
  • Periodically lift the lid to let accumulated steam escape.

The result is still not quite a French baguette-style super-crunchy crust, which is baked with extra steam for the first 10 minutes then the remaining time dry.  But it’s very comparable to a typical loaf of homemade bread.

One important note on this technique:  Because this requires using a dry pan over high heat, I recommend using either a cast iron Dutch oven (which is heavy and won’t harmed) or a Dutch oven that you don’t intend to use for anything else.  An aluminum or stainless steel Dutch oven will be discolored, and possibly warped, by using it to “bake” on the stove top.  I warned you!

A cast iron Dutch oven will definitely do a better job of baking, as it is far heavier and will both hold heat better and distribute it more evenly.  However, when I say it’s heavier, that’s exactly it:  a 12″ cast iron Dutch oven weighs almost 13 pounds, while a good aluminum one weighs about 8.

If you don’t have an oven and plan to make bread reasonably often, I’d really make an effort to find a way to get and use a cast iron Dutch oven as the results are so much better. (I used to use one camping, but it was sold when we moved aboard Que Tal and now all I have is the very cheap and thin one in the photos.  The cast iron was SO much better!)

And if you’re on passage or in a rolly anchorage where you have to use your stove gimbal, be sure to put an equal weight on the other side of the pivot point for any pan you use!

Image of bread baked like quick breadAll that said, there is nothing wrong with baking yeast bread using the same technique as for baking quick breads on the stove top as long as you don’t mind a chewier crust. That’s what I did for the loaf on the right, and it tasted great.

Since that technique uses a pan with sides, it’s much easier to get the bread in and out of the Dutch oven without burning your hand, and since it doesn’t use as high heat, you do less damage to your Dutch oven.

So now on to step-by-step directions for baking yeast breads in a Dutch oven so they have a more traditional yeast-bread crust:


You’ll need a Dutch oven, a flame tamer or a larger skillet that you can set the Dutch oven in (to even out hot spots), and a tuna can, trivet or saucer from a clay flower pot.  Oven mitts aren’t essential, but will definitely help protect your hands.

As a “pan,” you’ll need a metal disk or flat pan that’s at least 3″ less in diameter than the Dutch oven — 4″ smaller is even better.  The heavier the metal, the better.  I used the bottoms from two coffee cans, one on top of the other.  A small pizza pan would be perfect.


A dark, heavy bread dough is best.  Unless you have a very large Dutch oven, a loaf made from 1/2 cup water is about the right size (it will make a “personal” loaf just right for two people).  The photos here use my mom’s Swedish Rye Bread recipe.

While I normally caution against adding too much flour to bread dough, my caution here is against too wet a dough — if it doesn’t hold its own shape to some extent, it will overrun the edges of your “pan” and cause a big mess.


Picture of bread ready to bakeMake your bread dough as usual, being sure to size the batch to your pan.  When it comes time to put it in the pan, prepare the pan with a coating of oil and a thick layer of dry oatmeal.

Shape the dough into a round ball and put it in the center of the disk, as shown in the photo at right.

Let the dough rise slightly — remember that it will still get larger when you put it in the Dutch oven, and you don’t want it to overflow the disk.

Place the Dutch oven on the flame tamer and put the tuna can in it, then cover.  Preheat over the highest possible heat for 5 minutes (time it).  Place the bread on top of the tuna can, being very careful not to burn your hand on the hot sides of the Dutch oven.  Replace the lid.  Leave the burner at its hottest setting for 5 minutes (again, time it).

Without removing the lid, turn the heat down to just slightly over medium (on my stove, 4-1/2 where 7 is hottest).  Let it bake another 5 minutes, then briefly remove the lid to release accumulated steam.

Replace the lid and let the bread bake for the remainder of the allotted time (with my equipment, a loaf takes almost exactly the same time in total that it would have for a full-size loaf in a conventional oven).

It’s hard to test the loaf for doneness by tapping on it like you would do in a conventional oven.  If you have an instant-read meat thermometer, you can stick it into the center of the loaf — for a heavy bread, a temperature of 190 to 200 degrees F. means that it is done.

When done, very carefully remove the bread from the Dutch oven (again, watch your hands on those hot sides) and place it on a cooling rack, cutting board or plate.


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  • Waterwoman
    Posted at 08 August 2011 Reply

    Hi Carolyn, you have given me some good tips that I may be able to use to make bread in my pressure cooker. I use almond flour and flax meal and since it has no yeast, I guess it is a “quick” bread. I am trying to decide if it is worth it to take my fagor pressure cooker on our next trip south. It would certainly use less heat/propane. I understand I should remove the gasket and disable the pressure relief valve. I had some pressure cooker bread recipes by the Jessies, but have lost them.

    Thanks for your interesting ideas.

  • Jess Kruger
    Posted at 21 September 2011 Reply

    Hi Carolyn,

    Awhile back you invited me to check out your stove top bread baking article. I just finished reading it, and am happy to hear that a couple ideas I had will work!! Thank you!

    Would you mind if I gave this all a shot, and credited you on my blog for the technique?

    I look forward to hearing from you.


    • Carolyn Shearlock
      Posted at 21 September 2011 Reply

      Of course that’s OK! And be sure to let me know how it goes!


  • Karalee
    Posted at 29 March 2012 Reply

    I have been searching for the Omnia oven bu they seem to be discontinued. Do you have any recommendations?

    • Carolyn Shearlock
      Posted at 29 March 2012 Reply

      They’re available at several online retailers — see my post: Omnia Stove Top Baking Oven.

      Sometimes some of the retailers will be out of stock, but they seem to usually be in stock on Amazon — a few months ago I had several e-mail conversations with the manufacturer and told them of the problems in actually finding the oven in stock. They’ve worked with the retailer that’s selling on Amazon to make sure they’re not running out and it really seems to be working.

      As I write this, Amazon says they’re in stock — if that’s not the case, let me know and I’ll write Omnia and tell them the problem is back.


  • Karalee
    Posted at 30 March 2012 Reply

    I tried all of them and they all say they are out of stock. I evan went to the OJ Commerce site and they don’t show them in search. I would love to get one. Is it possible to order it direct from the manufacturer?


  • Celia
    Posted at 24 May 2012 Reply

    When I realiased you steamed your bread in a metal pan, I realised that actually that’s how the Chinese make their simple steamed buns – in a steamer. I’ve been making steamed bread for awhile because I was experimenting with gluten free recipes. They turned out better steamed than baked in a gas oven)

    The Chinese method of using baskets for steaming, I find is brilliant invention, because the steam rises and does not drip down onto the top of the bread. I use greaseproof paper beneath each bun – after cooking the wet steam allows to pull off the paper without needing grease. To make the bread brown and crunchy I put it in my cast iron skillet or wok to create a delicious crusty crispy surface.

    I think your stovetop baking and use of oats is brilliant idea too. Beautiful looking loaves!

    • Carolyn Shearlock
      Posted at 24 May 2012 Reply

      Actually, I’m trying hard not to steam the bread. The only moisture is in the bread dough itself, not in the pan.

  • HD
    Posted at 17 June 2012 Reply

    Hello, i could not find any info about cleaning the aluminium.
    Is it not difficult to clean as the product that your are backing
    burns itself to the aluminum ring? (oops this is Dutch Enlish)
    Thats the main concern I have with this product.
    Because it has no nonstick coating?

    • Carolyn Shearlock
      Posted at 17 June 2012 Reply

      I’ve never had a problem with it burning and sticking. If you coat the aluminum with oil and use oats, flour or cornmeal, it comes off easily and is easy to clean.

  • KT
    Posted at 20 January 2013 Reply

    I grew up baking bread and cakes in a cast iron Dutch oven on the fire ring, as you describe, but I start by heating a thick layer of clean sand in the bottom of the pot, then cover the sand with a metal pie pan. (Try to find one that fits the pot closely to keep the sand separate from the bread dough, or make a foil barrier. Or your clay saucer is good, too.) When the sand is hot, set the bread dough on the pie pan on top of the sand. Cover the pot and let it cook between 40-60 min. The pot lid can be left open just a little to let the steam escape. The hot sand preheats the “oven”, it protects the bottom of the cake or bread from burning, and it keeps the heat at an even temperature. A cast iron pot is best because it retains even heat and because a thinner pot will become warped by dry cooking on the stove top. I’ve baked round “rustic” boules this way, also cakes and a pie, and it works almost as well as a conventional oven.When I really want top-browning, I hit it quickly with a micro-torch after baking.
    You might also consider making or buying a small fold-up solar oven. They’re great for baking bread, cakes, muffins, cookies, pies … just about anything that doesn’t require fast high heat, but they take longer to bake. And you can slow-cook beans, rice, veg, stews, porridge etc in it, too. I’ve been cooking and re-heating my meals with solar cookers almost every day for about 40 years now, except when it’s too cloudy.

  • Louwrens
    Posted at 27 August 2013 Reply

    Thanks Carolyn, great tips. Came across your article halfway thru making my first pot loaf, in a heavy bottom stainless pot, with whole wheat flour. It was steaming a bit, so I ripped the lid off, and also, I had put the dough directly on the bottom (with some olive oil). So it became a little crunchy on the bottom. Next time will put a tray (or sand?) under it, inside the pot. Can’t keep my hands off the bread, a good sign, and I’m still in the harbour.

  • Natasha
    Posted at 12 September 2013 Reply

    Thank you so much for your article. It gives me hope. I plan to make a rocket mass heater/oven in our home, but it won’t be ready right away. In the meantime, we are moving in with an oven that doesn’t work. I don’t want to spend a bunch of money straightaway on an oven or just get a cheapy I won’t like. I was hoping there was a way to bake bread on the stovetop for now, and I found it in your article. Thank you! 🙂 I admire your adventures. I hope to have some of our own when the kids are grown, or maybe even before then.

    • Carolyn Shearlock
      Posted at 12 September 2013 Reply

      Kids love adventure — do it now with them! Seriously, there are lots of cruising kids, camping kids and kids doing all sorts of different things . . . and thriving!

  • Lavinia Maggs
    Posted at 20 August 2015 Reply

    I have been baking bread on the stovetop in my stainless steel heavy bottomed Dutch oven for a year now and get delicious crusty bread that is even more excellent toasted! It keeps the boat cool and is “low tech”. I have experimented with the recipe and switched to 1/2 whole wheat ans 1/2 white, as well as adding oatmeal to the mix. I got the recipe from fellow cruiser who posted it on a website called “galley swap”. It’s really delicious and easy!
    (I can’t post my pic here – so I will just post the recipe)

    Pressure Cooker Bread
    Written by sailacious
    2 tsp sugar
    1-1/2 tsp salt
    1 Tbl yeast
    1-1/2 Cup water
    4 Cup white flour
    Oil for pan
    Dissolve yeast in warm water. Let stand 5 min.
    Blend in flour, sugar and salt and knead 3 to 5 min adding flour as needed.
    Allow to rise until volume doubles.
    Grease pressure cooker and dust with flour.
    Knead dough again and place in cooker. Rise until double.
    Cover (without gasket) and then cook for 40 to 45 minutes over very low flame without opening.
    Brown the top by turning over and cook for last 7 to 10 minutes.

    # Use your small burner and a flame tamer to prevent burning.
    Hope this helps some of your followers!

  • sai shyam nilgiri
    Posted at 24 August 2016 Reply

    With regard to baking bread in a dutch oven, and to avoid the problem of steam escaping, it may be a good idea to place a thick turkish towel over the top of the dutch oven and then over that place the dutch oven lid tight. the towel will absorb much of the moisture from the bread and thereby not make it soggy.
    hope this helps.

  • sai shyam nilgiri
    Posted at 24 August 2016 Reply

    sorry i forgot. at a puh even newspaper will do the trick or just about any piece of cloth.

  • Anne Johnston
    Posted at 29 November 2017 Reply

    Hi Carolyn, I have just successfully baked my first loaf on the stovetop in a cast Iron camp oven following you very easy instructions. I’m delighted, thank You. A few points of difference, I suspect I needed more than the 5mins heat up and the first 5 mins cooking time as I used my cast iron pan as a flame spreader and only had it on a small gas element to approximate what I would use in my RV. I compensated with a longer cooking time as my thermometer was only up to 180 at the normal cooking time so gave it another 20 mins which took it up to just past the 200, perfect. I also did not use a trivet as the cooking pan I used was dense stainless steel and I needed space up top for the bread to expand. Interestingly, there was no steam escape (maybe because of slow heat initially) so I lifted the lid again a further 20 mins, still no steam. so that was not an issue. I took note of limiting the fluid, the grains were soaked overnight in some of the liquid) and I just added what seemed to make a firmer mix than usual. I only had a small ‘coin’ of burn on the bottom and when I separated the oven from the cast iron pan below, inverted the bread and let the soft top cook a bit more in the residual heat. It flattened the dome top but was firmer. The flavour and texture are just perfect! I wish I could upload the photos! I’m excited now that I can take off on my summer excursion in my RV, with my new camp oven and bread making skills, to an island off the coast of New Zealand that is off the grid, a conservation island that is also one of only 3 dark sky sanctuaries in the world. Thank You!

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